FODMAPs are fermentable carbohydrates that may be partly responsible for symptoms in people with IBS. These sugars can be poorly digested and thus accumulate in the small intestine. For more information about the low FODMAP diet, please read this article. There are five FODMAP families: fructans, fructose, lactose, polyols, and GOS. Fructans can be classified into three sub-categories: allicins, fruits/vegetable and grains. Polyols also include two subcategories, sorbitol and mannitol.
I am often asked for a list of the foods of each family, but it is not so simple to classify the foods according to the different families. This is because most foods contain more than one family of FODMAP. For example, watermelon is high in fructans, fructose, and mannitol. In addition, the FODMAP content of foods varies depending on the amount consumed. Many foods are low in FODMAP for a small amount, and may contain several families of FODMAP if consumed in larger quantities. For example, butternut squash is low in FODMAP for 1/3 cup (45 g), but high in mannitol and GOS for 1/2 cup (60 g).
Here is an overview of the most common foods that are the highest in FODMAPs for each family. Please note that this is not an exclusive list, only foods that are very high in FODMAP have been included. To know the FODMAP content of different foods please refer to the Monash app.
Allicins: garlic, green onion (scallion), leek, onion, shallot,
Grains: amaranth, barley, kamut, rye, spelt, wheat
Fruits and vegetables: artichoke, asparagus, banana (ripe), beetroot, Brussel sprouts, cashew, date, dried cranberries, dried fig, goji berries, most legumes except lentils and chickpeas (black beans, kidney beans, lima beans, etc.), molasses, pistachio, prune, raisins, Savoy cabbage, textured soy protein (TVP), watermelon.
almond*, beetroot, soy milk, cashew, pistachio, green peas, textured soy protein (TVP), edamame*, most legumes (lentils*, chickpeas*, black beans, kidney beans, lima beans, etc.), many grains and flours (amaranth, barley, kamut, rye, spelt, wheat).
*Note that almonds, canned chickpeas, lentils and edamame are low FODMAP when consumed in small amounts, but high FODMAP when consumed in larger amounts.
apple, asparagus, agave syrup, canned artichoke hearts, cherry, fig, honey, Jerusalem artichoke, mango, molasses, pear, watermelon.
Sorbitol: apple, apricot, avocado, blackberry, cherry, lychee, nectarine, peach, pear, plum, prune.
Mannitol: celery, cauliflower, kimchi, mushroom, sauerkraut, watermelon.
buttermilk, milk chocolate, cream, cottage cheese, cow’s milk, ice cream, milk powder, ricotta cheese, quark, yogurt.
Monash University (2022) Monash University FODMAP Diet Application