Trending Diets in Cardiovascular Health: How to Choose?

5 July, 2021 , ,

This article presents a summary of the key points of the conference given on June 3, 2021 as part of the seminar “Cardiology in Everyday Life” (in French) organized by Médecins francophones du Canada in partnership with the Montreal Heart Institute.

Heart healthy meal plans from SOSCuisine

Diets examined in this article

  • Low Carbohydrate diets: Ketogenic and Low Carb High Fat (LCHF)
  • Intermittent Fasting
  • Ornish diet
  • Vegetarianism and Veganism

Low Carbohydrate Diets: Ketogenic and Low Carb High Fat (LCHF)

Ketogenic Diet

The ketogenic diet has been used for a long time to treat epilepsy in children. It is very low in carbohydrates (20g of net carbohydrates per day) and very high in fat (70 to 75% of the total energy intake). Carbohydrates while on the diet come mainly from low-carb vegetables. Fruits, whole grains, vegetables which are higher in carbohydrates, and beans are excluded. The lack of carbohydrates causes depletion of the liver glycogen stores within 24 to 36 hours and the production of ketone bodies via neoglucogenesis which are the only source of energy for the brain. The strict ketogenic diet has certain risks including a possible deficiency in certain nutrients, insufficient fiber intake, a negative impact on the gut microbiota, an increased risk of colon cancer, and a potential risk for those taking certain medications such as insulin or having certain health conditions.

LCHF Diet

It consists of a low-carb, high-fat diet, but is less restrictive than the ketogenic diet. It allows a consumption of 50 to 100g of net carbohydrates per day (about 20 to 30% of the total energy intake versus 50% for a traditional diet). There is no ketone bodies production, and no food is prohibited.

Effects on Weight Loss

Low-carb diets can induce rapid weight loss in the short term (6 months and less), but include a loss of water and muscle mass. The long-term effects on weight loss are not well known and the long-term adherence is low. In the long term (6 months to 5 years), these diets are not more effective for weight loss than a low-fat or Mediterranean diet with caloric restriction.

Effects on Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

The LCHF and ketogenic diets have the advantage of eliminating the simple sugars associated with the development of CVD, but also exclude many plant based foods (fruits, whole grains, beans) that are beneficial for heart health. Meta-analyses indicate that these diets are associated with a decrease in triglycerides and blood pressure as well as an increase in HDL (good) cholesterol, but also an increase in LDL (bad) cholesterol. The LCHF diet seems to provide similar results as the ketogenic diet, but allows a better long-term adherence since it is less restrictive.

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Author

Kathryn Adel

Kathryn Adel

Kathryn completed degrees in kinesiology and nutrition, as well as a Masters in Sports Nutrition. She is a member of OPDQ and of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. She ran track and cross-country at a national level. Kathryn specializes in sports nutrition, weight loss, diabetes, as well as heart and gastrointestinal health. Kathryn is experienced with the low FODMAP diet and she completed the Monash University low FODMAP dietitian’s training.

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