Trending Diets in Cardiovascular Health: How to Choose?
Plant Based Diets
The following 5 subtypes of plant based diets can be distinguished:
- Semi-vegetarian: Excludes meat
- Pesco-vegetarian: Excludes meat and poultry
- Lacto-ovo-vegetarian: Excludes meat, poultry and fish
- Vegan: Excludes all foods of animal origin
- Low-fat vegan: Excludes all foods of animal origin and added fats
The benefits of a vegan diet are associated with the consumption of whole (unprocessed) foods, namely vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, and seeds. Thus, we must avoid ultra-processed vegan foods such as fake meats, vegan yogurts and ice creams, fake cheeses, sweets, cookies, chips, etc.
Low-processed vegan food and CVD
Studies show that a low-processed plant diet can improve the markers of cardiovascular disease (total cholesterol, LDL and HDL and blood pressure). A vegan diet would appear to have the greatest effects on markers when compared to a vegetarian diet.
Vegan Diet: adequate for everyone?
According to the official position of the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND), properly planned vegetarian diets, including vegan diets, are healthy, nutritionally adequate, and can provide health benefits for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. These diets are suitable for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, breastfeeding, early childhood, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and athletes. However, it is important to balance the diet in order to meet nutritional needs and avoid deficiencies, especially in regards to protein, calcium, vitamin D, omega-3, iodine, iron, zinc and vitamin B12. Supplements may be required in some cases.
Quick and Easy Falafel
Different dietary approaches can be beneficial for cardiovascular health. The pros and cons of some of them have been highlighted in this article. The Mediterranean diet, which is not emerging and therefore not included in the seminar, is another approach that is supported by research. The choice of approach to be followed should be personalised according to the dietary preferences, health problems, lifestyle, and characteristics of each individual. The SOSCuisine.com website allows one to follow several of these dietary approaches in the best possible conditions: Ketogenic, LCHF, Semi-Vegetarian, Pesco-Vegetarian, Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarian, Vegan and Mediterranean. Alternatively, a consultation with a dietician can be an effective way to be guided towards the approach that will best suit your needs.
- Bueno et coll. (2013). Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Nutrition, 110(7), 1178-1187.
- Naude et coll. (2014). Low carbohydrate versus isoenergetic balanced diets for reducing weight and cardiovascular risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one, 9(7), e100652.
- Alexandraki, Palacio & Mooradian (2015). Relative merits of low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diet in managing obesity. Southern Medical Journal, 108(7), 401-416.
- Mansoor et coll (2016). Effects of low-carbohydrate diets v. low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Nutrition, 115(3), 466-479.
- Sackner-Bernstein, Kanter & Kaul (2015). Dietary intervention for overweight and obese adults: comparison of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets. A meta-analysis. PloS one, 10(10), e0139817.
- Gjuladin-Hellon et coll.(2019). Effects of carbohydrate-restricted diets on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition reviews, 77(3), 161-180.
- Gibson et coll. (2015) Do ketogenic diets really suppress appetite? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
- Paoli et coll.(2019). Ketogenic diet and microbiota: friends or enemies?. Genes, 10(7), 534.
- Kirkpatrick et coll. (2019). Review of current evidence and clinical recommendations on the effects of low-carbohydrate and very-low-carbohydrate (including ketogenic) diets for the management of body weight and other cardiometabolic risk factors: a scientific statement from the National Lipid Association Nutrition and Lifestyle Task Force. Journal of clinical lipidology, 13(5), 689-711.
- Krieger et coll.(2006). Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 83(2), 260-274.
- Fleming et Kris-Etherton (2016). Macronutrient Content of the Diet: What Do We Know About Energy Balance and Weight Maintenance? Current Obesity Reports, 5, 2, 208-213.
- Świątkiewicz , Woźniak et Taub (2021). Time-Restricted Eating and Metabolic Syndrome: Current Status and Future Perspectives. Nutrients;13(1):221.
- Gabel et coll (2021) Time-Restricted Eating to Improve Cardiovascular Health. Curr Atheroscler Rep;23(5):22.
- Waldman, Renteria et McAllister (2019) Time-restricted feeding for the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases in high-stress occupations: a mechanistic review. Nutr Rev;78(6):459-464.
- Bass et Takahashi (2010). Circadian Integration of Metabolism and Energetics. Science; 330(6009):1349-1354.
- Dong et coll. (2020) . Intermittent Fasting: A Heart Healthy Dietary Pattern? Am J Medicine;133(8):901-907.
- Moon et coll (2020). Beneficial Effects of Time-Restricted Eating on Metabolic Diseases: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients;12(5):1267.
- Rynderset coll. (2019). Effectiveness of Intermittent Fasting and Time-Restricted Feeding Compared to Continuous Energy Restriction for Weight Loss. Nutrients;11(10):2442.
- Cioffi et coll. (2018) Intermittent versus continuous energy restriction on weight loss and cardiometabolic outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Transl Med;16(1):371.
- Headland et coll. (2016) Weight-Loss Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Intermittent Energy Restriction Trials Lasting a Minimum of 6 Months. Nutrients; 8(6):354
- Seimon et coll. (2015) Do intermittent diets provide physiological benefits over continuous diets for weight loss? A systematic review of clinical trials. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 15;418 Pt 2:153-72.
- Harris et coll. (2018) Intermittent fasting interventions for treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep; 16(2):507-547.
- Aksungar et coll (2017) Comparison of Intermittent Fasting Versus Caloric Restriction in Obese Subjects: A Two Year Follow-Up. J Nutr Health Aging;21(6):681-685.
- Tinsley et Horne (2017) Intermittent fasting and cardiovascular disease: current evidence and unresolved questions. Future Cardiology; 14 (1): 47-54.
- St-Onge et coll. (2017) Meal Timing and Frequency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention. A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Circulation; 135(9): e96-e121.
- Trepanowski et coll (2017) Effect of Alternate-Day Fasting on Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Cardioprotection Among Metabolically Healthy Obese Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med; 177(7): 930–938.
- Sundfor, Svendsen et Tonstad (2018) Effect of intermittent versus continuous energy restriction on weight loss, maintenance and cardiometabolic risk: A randomized 1-year trial. NMCD; 28(7): 698-706.
- Zauner et coll. (2000) Resting energy expenditure in short-term starvation is increased as a result of an increase in serum norepinephrine. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 71(6): 1511–1515.
- Brandhorst et Longo (2019) Dietary Restrictions and Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease.
- Ornish Lifestyle Medicine Dietary Guidelines. Ornish Lifestyle Medicine.
- Ornish et coll. (1998) Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease. JAMA;280(23):2001-7.
- Yokoyama, Levin et Barnard (2017) Association between plant-based diets and plasma lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Rev;75(9):683-698.
- Lee et coll. (2020) Effects of Vegetarian Diets on Blood Pressure Lowering: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis. Nutrients;12(6):1604.
- Shah et coll. (2018) Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Vegan Diet Versus the American Heart Association-Recommended Diet in Coronary Artery Disease Trial. J Am Heart Assoc;4;7(23).
- Rogerson et coll. (2018)Contrasting Effects of Short-Term Mediterranean and Vegan Diets on Microvascular Function and Cholesterol in Younger Adults: A Comparative Pilot Study. Nutrients; 10(12): 1897.
- Barnard et coll. (2021) A Mediterranean Diet and Low-Fat Vegan Diet to Improve Body Weight and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Randomized, Cross-over Trial. J Am Coll Nutr; (sous presse).
- Satija et coll. (2017)Healthful and Unhealthful Plant-Based Diets and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in U.S. Adults. J Am Coll Cardiol;70(4):411-422.
- Melina, Craig et Levin (2016). Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets.J Acad Nutr Diet;116(12):1970-1980.
The following two tabs change content below.
Kathryn completed degrees in kinesiology and nutrition, as well as a Masters in Sports Nutrition. She is a member of OPDQ and of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. She ran track and cross-country at a national level. Kathryn specializes in sports nutrition, weight loss, diabetes, as well as heart and gastrointestinal health. Kathryn is experienced with the low FODMAP diet and she completed the Monash University low FODMAP dietitian’s training.